GTF - General Tanker Familiarization

Properties of the following:

Oil – liquid form, volatile
Chemical – toxic, hazardous, highly reactive, corrosive
Gas – poisonous, toxic, explosive, highly flammable

Loading and discharging procedure
  • The vessel is safely secured alongside
  • The ship has performed all the various precautionary measures
  • The choice of tank has been made

Loading and discharging requirements:
  • Firefighting equipments
  • Safety equipments
  • Protective clothing
  • Anti-pollution equipment
  • Scuffer plugs
  • Safety signs and notices
  • lightings

Toxicity – is the ability of the substance to cause damage to living tissue.

Explosimeter - it is an instrument used for measuring the composition of hydrocarbon gas and air mixture usually giving the result as a percentage of lower flammable limit.

IGS – inert gas system

Inert gas system is an inert gas plant and inert gas distribution system together with the means to prevent back flow of cargo gases to the machinery spaces. It also consists of fixed and portable measuring instrument and control devices.

Inert gas system is used in cargo tanks to protect the cargo from polymerization, oxidation and humidity, and to replace air thereby prevent fire and explosion.

Inert gas is produce by passing hot flu gases from the boiler through a scrubber, the gases are cooled and cleaned of corrosive products, and the cooled and cleaned inert gases are delivered by means of fan to the tank.

Risk of spillage prevention:
  • ship’s movement alongside must be restricted by adjusting mooring
  • pipelines, joints and valves must be kept under observations while cargo handling
  • drip trays and drip pans must be fitted or placed @ vulnerable points, hose connections
  • all scuffers must be closed to prevent the discharge of oil from deck to overboard

How an OOW (officer on watch) can prevent oil spills?
  • Activate (ESD) Emergency Shut Down
  • Immediately report to the master and terminal

To control marine pollution:
  • Know and familiarize Marpol 73/78 and annexes
  • Observed discharge restriction
  • Recycle as much as possible
  • Use drip pans and drip trays
  • Use anti-pollution equipment

To prevent oil spill on board:
  • Do not use hoses with leaks
  • Avoid bending flexible hose excessively
  • Hoses should be suspended from suitable equipment

Sources of ignition:
  • Mechanical energy
  • Electrical energy
  • Chemical energy
  • Static electricity
  • Auto ignition
  • Lighting
  • Direct heat

Personal Survival Techniques (IMO Model Course 1.19)

Survival - is the ability of a seafarer to stay alive when life is threatened in a shipping casualty. It is an action, ability or effort exerted by a person or group of persons in order to continue to live in the mids of disastrous situation. It is a struggle for existence.

Essentials for survival at sea:
  • Have a strong will to survive.
  • Have survival knowledge and techniques: (a) Proper use of life-saving appliances and equipment (b) Actions to be taken when abandoning a ship (c) Survival knowledge and techniques required when drifting (d) Cautions required by a person being pick-up
  • Have excellent life-saving appliances which is always maintained in good condition.

Life-saving appliances:
  1. Lifeboat
  2. Liferaft
  3. Bouyant apparatus
  4. Lifejacket (rigid)
  5. Lifejacket (inflatable)
  6. Lifebouy / Life ring
  7. Lifejacket light
  8. Immersion suit
  9. Thermal Protective Air (TPA)

Ship must have a SOLAS Training Manual which explained in details the following:

  1. Appropriate donning of lifejackets and immersion suits.
  2. Muster at the assign station.
  3. Boarding, Lainching and Clearing the survival craft and rescue boats.
  4. Method of Launching from with in the survival craft.
  5. Released from launching areas.
  6. Method and use of devices for protection and launching areas where appropriate.
  7. Illumination in launching areas.
  8. Use of all survival equipment.
  9. Use of all detection equipment.
  10. Use of radio life-saving appliances.
  11. Use of drogues
  12. Use of engines and accessories.
  13. Recovery of survival craft and rescue boats including stowage and securing.
  14. Hazard of exposure and the need of warm clothing.
  15. Best use of survival craft.
  16. Method of retrieval, including use of helicopter rescue gear (sling, basket, stretchers), breeches bouyant shore life saving apparatus and ship's line throwing apparatus.
  17. All other functions contained in the muster list and emergency instructions.
  18. Instruction for emergency repair of the life-saving appliances.

Instruction for on-board maintenance of life-saving appliances shall include the following:

  1. A check list for use when carrying out the inspection require by this regulations.
  2. Maintenance and repair instruction.
  3. Schedule of periodic maintenance.
  4. Diagram of lubrication points with the recommended lubricants.
  5. List of replaceable parts.
  6. List of source of spare parts.
  7. Log of records of inspection and maintenance.


Things to remember:

  1. Know your duties in an emergency.
  2. Be prepared - an emergency can arise anytime.
  3. Knowledge and Training gives you the best chances to cope with an emergency.

Causes of Emergencies:

  1. Fire / Explosion
  2. Collision
  3. Grounding or Stranding
  4. Leakage
  5. Icing
  6. Man overboard


Muster list must be located in places where it can be easily seen.

Muster list tells you the following:

  • WHO YOU ARE - Identifies all crews by name, number, rank, or a combination of both number and rank.
  • WHERE YOU GO - Identifies the muster stations (assembly stations) which are the designated places on the ship that personnel should go upon hearing the general emergency alarm signal.
  • WHAT TO DO - Either specific duties are assigned, such as preparations of boats, stairway guides etc., or crew will carry out duties as required - dependent on the nature of emergency.


Personal Muster Card - contains information which are useful to crew members in an emergency situation.
The following are information in the muster card:
  1. Crew number, etc.
  2. General Emergency Alarm signal
  3. Fire alarn signal
  4. Abandon ship signal
  5. Muster (assembly) station
  6. Emergency duties


General Alarm - consist of seven (7) or more short blast followed by one (1) long blast on the ship's whistle. (Instruction: Get ready)

Boat Alarm - at least (7) short blast followed by one (1) long blast repeated on the ship's whistle. (Instruction: All to attend their station wearing life jacket)

Fire Alarm - continous blast of the whistle for a period of not less than 10 seconds followed by continous ringing of the general alarm. (Instruction: All to attend their stations bringing along their assigned fire fighting equipment)

Man Over Board Alarm - the letter "O" sounded at least four times on the ship's whistle followed by the same signal sounded on the fire bells. (Instruction: rescue boat crew to muster station immediately carrying the immersion suit)


The order to abandon ship is never given until the master judges it necessary. The ship is the safest survival craft, but if the ship's condition will put people's lives in great danger, abandoning it will be the best option.

    Elementary First Aid (IMO Model Course 1.13)

    First Aid - is the emergency treatment given to the ill or injured person before professional medical services can be obtain.

    A first aider fills the gap between the victim and physician, it should not compete or take the place of the physician, the role of the first aider ends when the services of the physicians begins.

    A good first aider must be:
    • Resourceful
    • Gentle
    • Sympathetic
    • Cheerful
    • Observant
    • Tactful
    Purpose in administering first aid to ill or injured person:
    • To prevent death
    • To prevent further injury
    • To counteract shock
    • To relieve pain
    • To prevent severe bleeding
    • To prevent asphyxiation
    Severe bleeding and asphyxiation require immediate attention, a few seconds delay reduce the chances of survival of the victim, while other medical emergencies may safely be posponed for a few minutes.


    All crew members aboard ship should have proper training and sufficient knowledge of first aid. Crew members should be able to administer emergency treatment until medical assistance arrive.

    As first aider, crew members should be aware of their ability and limitations. Crew members should not attempt to administer first aid procedure and techniques which they are not properly trained or that are beyond their ability because it will further harm the victim or victims.

    Aboard ship first aid must be immediately administered to:
    • To restore breathing and heartbeat
    • Control bleeding
    • Remove poisons
    • Prevent further injury to the patient